Bone in climacteric period.
During menopause it is desirable to densitometry – study of bone density for early detection of osteopenia (low bone density) or osteoporosis (significant thinning of bone tissue making bones very fragile).
Risk factors include low weight, smoking, and alcohol abuse, and sedentary lifestyle, low consumption of foods containing calcium, prolonged breastfeeding (more than 6 months), more than 3 births, early menopause, and osteoporosis in the presence of relatives.
In the absence of monitoring the state of the skeletal system the first sign of osteoporosis typically become fractures, which occur when minor trauma or even by coughing, sneezing, sudden movements. Often these fractures are discovered by accident during x-ray examination on another occasion. Other symptoms, usually does not happen. It is also suspected of osteoporosis, a decrease in the growth of more than 2 inches a year, or 4 cm during any period of time.
Timely appointment of hormone replacement therapy is very effective at preventing osteoporosis. However, if HRT is contraindicated or started too late, when already exist osteoporosis, to treat it using other drugs.
For the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis is very important is dosed physical load. Most shows walking, playing sports, swimming. And here is jumping, running for long distances, power loads are contraindicated, because give a significant burden on the skeletal system. It is also necessary to give up smoking, because when smoking even more disturbed calcium absorption in the body. In the diet should be enough of foods containing calcium: milk and dairy products, as well as vitamin D – oily fish and eggs.
In order to maintain normal levels of calcium and vitamin D in the blood should be used in the preparation of calcium and vitamin D3. For the treatment of osteoporosis most often used drugs that slow bone thinning. Currently, the search for alternative drugs hormone therapy that has fewer contraindications for use in comparison with hormones.