Acquired heart diseases, as well as birth, are violations of the heart. But, unlike birth, which appear in person before his birth, the development of valvular clear from its name. Acquired heart disease – it is the defeat of the heart valves, the most frequently purchased defects manifest themselves as a consequence of rheumatic fever. Often the disease goes by without attacks of rheumatic fever and heart disease is detected when there are complaints from the heart.
So, most often acquired heart disease develops as a result of rheumatic fever and, rarely, atherosclerosis (much rarer syphilitic heart disease, sepsis, traumatic origin). In the leaf valve develops an inflammatory process that leads to their damage, destruction and scar deformation. When disturbed the function of heart valves work with increased load, develops hypertrophia (thickening) of the heart, further expanding the cavity of the heart, decreases contractility of the heart muscle, showing signs of heart failure.
The most common cause of valvular heart defect and the development of a rheumatic disease followed by bacterial endocarditis, myocardial infarction, post infarction conditioning malformations (ventricular septal defect, failure of the left atrioventricular valve, aneurysm of the heart), chest injuries.
There are basic types of heart diseases: valvular insufficiency and stenosis. Apart from these, may also be called a combined heart disease and compensated heart disease.
Failure – a form of heart disease, in which, due to incomplete closure of the valve, due to his defeat, some blood flows back to those of the heart, from which it came. This creates an additional burden on the heart increases it?s mass, and leads to fatigue of the heart.
Stenosis – a defeat heart valve with fusion of its wings. This leads to a narrowing of the openings between the chambers of the heart, which also prevents normal blood flow, partially blocking it.
If the two types of acquired heart disease – valvular insufficiency and stenosis – affect the cardiovascular system at the same time, talk about a combined heart defects.
As mentioned above, the patient from heart disease can almost ignore her illness, as spare capacity of the heart is huge, and able to compensate for the affected department by strengthening the work of other parts of the heart. In these cases it is a compensated heart defects, which can be diagnosed only by a doctor. Gradually exhausted the resources of the heart, and developing heart failure.
Currently, the following types of surgical treatment of acquired heart defects: plastic; prosthetic heart valves with mechanical and biological prostheses, reconstruction of the aortic root, valve replacement with preservation of subvalvular structures; operation to restore sinus rhythm; orthotic for defects with infective endocarditis, prosthetic heart valves in conjunction with coronary artery bypass for ischemic heart disease.
Surgery of heart defects often gives very good results without having the patient not only from the effects of heart disease, but also eliminating the defect itself.
Prevention of heart diseases is aimed at treatment of those diseases that cause heart valve damage. As a leading place among the causes of valvular heart valve is rheumatic fever, it is necessary to timely detect and eliminate sources of streptococcal infection. In particular, if the patient suffers from chronic tonsillitis with frequent exacerbations (angina), it may be advisable to remove the tonsils.
Additionally, persons suffering from rheumatism and can be displayed year-round bicillin prophylaxis, consisting of monthly administration of long-acting antibiotic (bicillin).
In addition, when there is suspicion on the development of heart disease requires constant monitoring by a cardiologist and implementation of its provisions.