Mitral valve prolapse is characterized by diverse symptoms, depending primarily on the degree of connective tissue dysplasia and autonomic changes.
Complaints in children with mitral valve prolapse are very diverse: fatigue, headaches, dizziness, fainting, and shortness of breath, pain in the heart, palpitations, and a sense of disruption from the heart. It is characterized by decreased physical performance, psycho-emotional lability, nervousness, and irritability, and anxiety, depressive and hypochondriacally reaction.
In most cases, mitral valve prolapse are different manifestations of connective tissue dysplasia: asthenic physique, height, weight reduction, increased elasticity of the skin, weak muscles, hyper mobility of joints, impaired posture, scoliosis, chest wall deformity, flat feet, myopia. You can find hypertelorism eyes and nipples, a peculiar structure of the ears and other minor malformations. To visceral manifestations of connective tissue dysplasia includes nephroptosis, abnormalities of the structure of the gallbladder and other.
Often, mitral valve prolapse observed changes in heart rate and blood pressure. The boundaries of the heart are usually not dilated. The most informative auscultative data: often there are isolated clicks. In some cases (for “silent” version of mitral valve prolapse) auscultation is no symptoms. ?Symptoms of secondary mitral valve prolapse are similar to that in the primary and combined with manifestations characteristic of concomitant diseases (Marfan syndrome, congenital heart disease, rheumatic heart disease, etc.).
For the diagnosis of mitral valve prolapse using clinical and instrumental criteria. The main criteria are specific auscultative and echocardiography-signs, which is crucial. These medical histories, complaints, manifestations of connective tissue dysplasia, results of ECG and X-rays contribute to the diagnosis, but have a supplementary value.
Mitral valve prolapse must be differentiated primarily with congenital or acquired mitral insufficiency, systolic noise caused by other variants of small developmental anomalies of the heart or valvular dysfunction. The most informative echocardiography, promotes proper evaluation of the identified cardiac changes.
Treatment of mitral valve prolapse depends on its form, the severity of clinical symptoms, including the nature of cardiovascular and autonomic changes on the characteristics of the underlying disease, as well as on age (mitral valve prolapse detected in 2-18% of children and adolescents, significantly more likely than adults). When treating children with mitral valve prolapse is very important correction of autonomic disorders, as non-pharmacological and pharmacological.
With “silent” form of treatment is limited to general measures aimed at normalizing autonomic and emotional status of children, without reducing the physical load.
At auscultation variant children satisfactorily transferring physical activity and having no appreciable violations according to the ECG, may engage in physical activity with the group. Exclude only exercise-related sudden movements, running, jumping. In some cases, you need relief from the tournament.
In detecting mitral regurgitation, marked disorders of repolarization on the ECG, distinct arrhythmias should be a significant limitation of physical activity with individual selection of a complex gymnastics.
When mitral insufficiency, accompanied by severe, resistant to the treatment of cardiac decompensation, as well as accession of infective endocarditis and other serious complications (expressed arrhythmias) an opportunity for surgical correction of mitral valve prolapse (restorative surgery or mitral valve replacement).
Prevention is aimed primarily at preventing the progression of existing valvular and complications. For this purpose, to exercise individual choice and the necessary therapeutic measures, adequate treatment of other existing pathology (with secondary mitral valve prolapse). Children with mitral valve prolapse are dispensary observation with regular surveys (ECG, echocardiography, etc.).
The prognosis of mitral valve prolapse in children depends on its origin, the severity of morphological changes of the mitral valve, the degree of regurgitation, the presence or absence of complications. In childhood, mitral valve prolapse usually occurs favorably. Complications of mitral valve prolapse in children occur rarely. Mitral valve prolapse, which arose in a child, can lead to disorders in adulthood. In connection with this need timely diagnosis, clear the necessary medical and preventive measures specifically in children.