A man’s heart is working all his life. It relaxes and reduces from 50 to 150 times per minute. In the systole phase of the heart is reduced, providing blood flow and deliver oxygen and nutrients throughout the body. In the phase of diastole, it is resting. It is therefore very important that the heart beats at regular intervals. If a shorter period of systole, the heart is unable to fully supply the body movement of blood and oxygen. If the period of diastole reduced heart does not have time to rest. Cardiac arrhythmias – a violation of the frequency, rhythm and sequence of contractions of the heart muscle. Cardiac muscle – the myocardium is composed of muscle fibers. There are two types of fibers: the working myocardium or contractile, provides reduction conducting myocardium creates momentum for the reduction of the working myocardium and ensures that momentum. Reductions in cardiac muscle is provided by electrical impulses arising in the sinus node, which is in the right atrium. Then the electrical impulses are distributed conductive fibers of the atria to the node, located at the bottom of the right atrium. Muscle fibers are reduced by an electric pulse in systole and relax in its absence in diastole. The frequency of normal (sinus) rate reduction of about 50 contractions during sleep, in peace, to 150-160 in the physical and psycho-emotional stress, pre exposure to high temperatures. The regulatory effect on the activity of the sinus node has an endocrine system, through the blood contained in the hormones and autonomic nervous system – its sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions. An electrical impulse in the sinus node arises from the difference concentrations of electrolytes inside and outside the cells and their movement through the cell membrane. Major participants in this process are potassium, calcium, chlorine, and to a lesser extent sodium. The causes of cardiac arrhythmias are not fully explored. It is believed that the main two reasons are changes in the nervous and endocrine regulation, or functional disorders, and developmental anomalies of the heart, the anatomical structure – organic disorders. This is often a combination of these root causes. The increase in heart rate over 100 per minute is called sinus tachycardia. Reductions in heart muscle with full and cordial complexes on the electrocardiogram did not change, just registered quickened pace. This may be the reaction of a healthy person to stress or physical stress, but may be a symptom of heart failure, various poisonings, and diseases of the thyroid gland. Heart rate less 60 per minute is called sinus bradycardia. Cardiac Complexes on ECG also not changed. This condition can occur in a physically well-trained people (athletes). Bradycardia was accompanied by as thyroid disease, brain tumors, mushroom poisoning, hypothermia, etc. Conduction disorders and heart rate – this is a very frequent complication of cardiovascular disease. The most common cardiac arrhythmia encountered: extra systoles (extraordinary reduction), atrial fibrillation (completely abnormal rhythm), and paroxysmal tachycardia (rapid heart rate acceleration from 150 to 200 beats per minute). Classification of arrhythmias is very difficult. Arrhythmias and the blockade can occur anywhere in the conduction system of the heart. Their appearance depends on the location of arrhythmia or closures. Extra systoles or atrial fibrillation, the patient felt as palpitations, the heart beats more often than usual or there are interruptions in the heart. If the patient is sinking, heart failure and at the same time he has come in dizziness and loss of consciousness, most likely the patient blockade of cardiac rhythm or bradycardia (decrease in frequency of the pulse). If you find a patient of a cardiac arrhythmia is necessary to conduct a full examination to clarify the causes of arrhythmias. The main method of diagnosis of cardiac arrhythmias is the electrocardiogram. Electrocardiogram helps determine the type of arrhythmia. But some arrhythmias occur sporadically. Therefore, their diagnosis is used Holter monitoring. This study provides a record of the electrocardiogram in a few hours or days. The patient leads a normal life, and keeps a diary, which notes the clock run their actions (sleep, rest, physical activity). When deciphering the electrocardiogram ECG data compared with data from the diary. Ascertain the frequency, duration, time of occurrence of arrhythmias and their relationship with physical activity, both signs of insufficient blood supply to analyze the heart. Patients with a diagnosis of cardiac arrhythmias or worsening of their symptoms should always be observed by your doctor.
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