Ischemia is coronary atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries. Atherosclerosis occurs when plugging and narrowing of the arteries, restricting blood flow to the heart. Without adequate blood supply from the system of the coronary arteries of the heart is not enough oxygen and nutrients to function properly.
Coronary artery is blood vessels of the heart. They are smooth and elastic, that promotes the free flow of blood. Fat may be postponed to the vessel walls before reaching adolescence. In the future, with age, the fat accumulates. It causes damage to blood vessel walls. In an attempt to heal itself, adipose tissue releases chemicals that promote the healing process, but make the inner wall of blood vessels adhesive.
After that substances such as inflammatory cells, proteins and calcium, which move with the flow of blood begin to stick to the inside walls of blood vessels. Grease and other substances combine to form plaque, which can constrict blood flow in the arteries (atherosclerosis).
Plaques are hard outside and soft mushy inside. Some deposits are weak and brittle and can crack or break, exposing the outside fat content. When this happens, platelets (disc-blood elements involved in clotting) are suitable for such a site and settle there, forming blood clots, which accumulate on the damaged vessel wall. This further narrows the artery. Sometimes the blood clots dissolve it, resuming the flow of blood.
Over time, the inner surface of arteries is formed plaques of different sizes. Later, a narrowed coronary artery may contribute to the growth of new blood vessels that bypass the blocked section to deliver blood to the heart. Nevertheless, during exercise or stress, new arteries cannot supply to the heart muscle is enough oxygen-rich blood.
In some cases, the clot can completely block the blood flow to the myocardium, causing what is called coronary syndrome. This is the common name for the three major states: ? ? 1. Unstable angina: can often be cut short with oral medications and can progress to the development of a heart attack. Coronary syndrome usually requires more intensive medical or other treatment.
2. Myocardial infarction without ST-segment elevation or no Q-infarct: This heart attack or myocardial infarction (MI) does not cause typical changes in the electrocardiogram (ECG). Nevertheless, the damage to the myocardium may indicate that the chemical markers that can be detected in the blood.
3. Myocardial infarction with ST-segment elevation or Q-infarct: This heart attack or MI may cause a prolonged period of lack of blood flow to the heart. He struck large areas of the heart muscle, causing changes in the ECG and the appearance of chemical markers in the blood.? In some people, there are signs that may presage the development of acute coronary syndrome, while others are no symptoms until the emergence of the attack, at the third and no symptoms, and acute coronary syndrome.
When plaque, or fatty substances reduce the artery to the extent that supply the body with oxygen enriched blood does not meet his needs, then a muscle spasm. This is called ischemia. Ischemia occurs when blood supply does not meet the needs of the heart muscle, while you may feel chest pain or other symptoms. Ischemia is most often occurs when the heart needs more oxygen. This mainly occurs when: loads (physical activity), food intake, emotional feelings or stress, stay on the cold air. Coronary heart disease can progress to such an extent that ischemia occurs even at rest. If symptomatic relief of ischemia occurs in a short period of time (less than 10 minutes) after the holidays or taking medication, you can set the diagnosis of “stable coronary heart disease” or “stable angina”.
Ischemia, also called coronary heart disease ranks first among causes of death worldwide, affecting more than 30 million people per year.